The process of buying property in Florida, whether as an investment or as a home, is an exciting journey that opens doors to new opportunities and experiences. The diverse landscape of the Florida real estate market offers a wide range of options, from cozy residences to luxurious beachfront properties, catering to a variety of preferences and needs. For both local residents and international investors from Brazil, the Floridian market stands out as a fertile field, full of promising possibilities.

In this promising scenario, however, navigating the legal and bureaucratic aspects of buying a property can be a complex and sometimes challenging terrain. The deed - the document that grants ownership of a property to the buyer - is a fundamental and often misunderstood element of this process.

A clear understanding of the types of deeds available in the state of Florida, their legal and financial implications, and in which contexts each is most appropriate, is crucial to ensuring safe and successful real estate transactions.

In this article, we will explore the various types of deeds that exist in Florida, the main ones being the General Warranty Deed, the Special Warranty Deed, the Quitclaim Deed, the Bargain and Sale Deed and the Warranty Deed. Choosing an inappropriate deed can result in future complications, including legal disputes and financial losses.

Article Objective:

This article aims to demystify the different types of deeds in FloridaThis is a great way to provide buyers - whether local or from Brazil - with valuable and practical information to make informed choices and protect their real estate investments.

We'll delve into each type of deed, exploring their characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and the most suitable scenarios for using each one.

Why is Scripture Essential?

What is the Function of Scripture?

The deed is more than just a document in the real estate world: it is the tangible and legal proof of ownershipThe deed is the tool that effects and registers the transfer of real estate from one party to another. Its main function is to grant the new owner the rights to the property acquired, whether full or with reservations, depending on the type of deed used in the transaction. It is the deed that makes it clear, in legal terms, who has the rights to the property and also specifies the guarantees that the seller offers the buyer regarding these rights.

In the various stages of the process of buying and selling a property - from the initial negotiation, through drawing up the contract, to the actual transfer of the property - the deed is what solidifies and confirms the transfer of ownership. And this is done by means of a formal act in which the selling party declares, in accordance with established laws and regulations, the transfer of property rights to the buyer.

The Need for a Deed in the Real Estate Purchase Process:

The need for a deed goes beyond mere formality; it is the protection of both parties involved in the transaction.

For the buyerThe deed is the legal guarantee that you are the new owner of the property, giving you the security that, once the document is registered, the rights to the property are undoubtedly yours.

In the case of the sellerThe deed is the document that formalizes the transfer of ownership, exempting you from future liabilities relating to the property once all the obligations agreed in the sale have been fulfilled.

Let's delve into some of the vital nuances of scripture:

  • Registration and Publicity: When registered with a notary, the deed gives publicity to the act of buying and selling the property, making the transaction transparent and accessible to any individual or entity wishing to verify ownership of the asset.
  • Conflict Prevention: The clarity and specificity of the deed, by detailing the rights and duties of all the parties involved, act as an element in preventing future conflicts, by crystal-clearly establishing the agreed obligations and guarantees.
  • Transaction Validation: The deed, validated by a notary, certifies that all parties have agreed to the terms and conditions of the transaction, ensuring that the process of transferring ownership is legal and consensual.

Legal certainty: The accuracy and formality of the deed provide a solid and secure basis for the parties, should legal issues arise in the future relating to the property or the transaction.

Overview of Deed Types in Florida:

Navigating the complex world of real estate transactions in Florida requires a a firm understanding of the different types of deeds available and when each one is most appropriate.

An in-depth understanding of the varieties and peculiarities of each type of deed is crucial to ensuring a safe transaction and compliance with state laws and regulations. Therefore, in this section, we will provide a glimpse of the main types of deed in Florida: General Warranty Deed, Special Warranty Deed, Quitclaim Deed, Bargain and Sale Deed, and Warranty Deed.

  • General Warranty Deed: This type of deed offers the highest level of protection to the buyer, as the seller (seller) offers guarantees (or covenants) that he has clear title to the property and has the full right to sell it. In addition, the seller undertakes to protect the buyer against any future claims on the title to the property. The General Warranty Deed is often used in traditional real estate sales and is highly favored by buyers due to the level of protection it provides.
  • Special Warranty Deed: Unlike the General Warranty Deed, the Special Warranty Deed provides limited warranties that apply only to the period in which the current seller owned the property. This means that the seller is insuring the buyer against defects or claims to the title only during their period of ownership, not providing guarantees regarding possible problems that may have occurred before then.
  • Quitclaim Deed: The Quitclaim Deed makes no warranties as to the title to the property and is often used in transactions between family members or in cases where the parties know each other well. Through this deed, the seller simply "waives" any rights he may have over the property in favor of the buyer, without ensuring that the title is free and clear.
  • Bargain and Sale Deed: A Bargain and Sale Deed offers no guarantees about the title to the property. However, implicitly, the seller states that he owns and has the right to sell the property. This type of deed is commonly used in foreclosure sale transactions and property tax sales. does not insure the buyer against existing debts or encumbrances on the property.
  • Warranty Deed: Generally, "Warranty Deed" refers to the overall concept of deeds that offer some level of guarantee and can be broken down into "General" and "Special" Warranty Deeds, as mentioned above.
  • Life Estate Deed: A Life Estate Deed is a legal document that transfers ownership of real estate, usually a house, from the original owner (grantor) to another person (grantee) only during the grantor's lifetime. This type of deed is used to ensure that the grantor can live in the property or earn income from it throughout their lifetime, passing automatically to the grantee after their death, without the need for a probate process. The grantor retains the right to use, rent or sell the property during their lifetime, but any changes or sales to the property must often be agreed by the grantee.
  • Lady Bird Deed: The Lady Bird Deed, also known in some places as the "Enhanced Life Estate Deed", gives the grantor even greater control over the property during their lifetime compared to the ordinary Life Estate Deed. This type of deed allows the original owner to transfer the property to beneficiaries, usually their children, while retaining the right to live in the property, rent it out, or sell it during their lifetime, without the need for the beneficiaries' consent. The main distinction of the Lady Bird Deed lies in the flexibility it offers the grantor in terms of managing and deciding on the property, while still ensuring a smooth transfer of the property to the beneficiaries after their death, also without the need for a probate process.

Although each of these deeds has its own peculiarities and is more appropriate for different situations, what they all have in common is that they legally define the transfer of ownership from one party to another.

Factors that Influence the Value of a Property

Location and characteristics of the neighborhood

Location is one of the pillars of real estate valuation, with the intrinsic value of the property often being directly impacted by the characteristics and conveniences of the neighborhood. Factors such as proximity to quality schools, access to services and commerce, security, infrastructure, and the aesthetics of the area are vital.

A neighborhood with a positive reputation, low crime rates, and a thriving community tends to increase the value of properties located there, thus becoming a key element in appraisal analysis.

Physical characteristics of the property: size, age, condition, etc.

The value of a property is also intrinsically linked to its physical characteristics. The size of both the plot and the built-up area, the number of bedrooms and bathrooms, the quality of the finishes, the age of the building, the state of repair and any improvements or renovations carried out are all factors that are analyzed in detail during the appraisal process.

A well-maintained property with a solid, modernized structure inevitably has a higher value than similar properties in poorer condition.

Economic Conditions and Trends in the Real Estate Market

Fluctuations and trends in the real estate market, as well as global and local economic health, are essential aspects in determining the value of a property. Macroeconomic factors such as interest rates, inflation, and general economic performance, as well as microeconomic variables such as the supply and demand of real estate in the specific region, influence prices and are carefully considered during appraisal.

An analysis of the economic conditions and projections for the local real estate market will provide a basis for understanding the current positioning of the property in the market context and its future prospects.

General Warranty Deed:

Definition and benefits:

The General Warranty Deed is considered one of the safest ways to transfer ownership of a property, due to the solid guarantees it provides to the buyer. In essence, this deed ensures that the seller (grantor) has legitimate possession of the title to the property, has the undisputed right to sell it and that the title is free of any liens or encumbrances that are not explicitly mentioned in the deed.

Primary benefits:

  • Comprehensive Guarantees: It offers the buyer strong guarantees against future claims or challenges to the title of the property.
  • Buyer protection: Protects the buyer against financial liabilities related to future claims, encumbrances or disputes over the property.
  • Peace and quiet: It provides a sense of security and stability for the buyer, knowing that the title to the property is free and clear.

Typical Contexts of Use:

The General Warranty Deed is commonly used in various real estate sales situations, especially when the parties involved require high levels of security and guarantee in the transaction.

  • Conventional sales: This type of deed is often used in standard sales transactions in the real estate market, where the seller is able to offer comprehensive guarantees to the buyer.
  • New purchases: First-time buyers or those wishing to avoid potential future legal complications can insist on the use of a General Warranty Deed.
  • High-value real estate sales: In transactions involving properties of significant value, where the financial risks are greater, this deed may be particularly preferred to provide an extra layer of security for the buyer.

Financial and legal implications:

When opting for a General Warranty Deed, both the seller and the buyer must be aware of the various financial and legal implications that may arise in the future.

For the Seller:

  • Prolonged Responsibility: The seller, by providing extensive warranties, may find himself legally liable for title disputes or claims that may arise in the future, even after the sale has been completed.
  • Legal costs: Should legal issues arise in relation to the security after the sale, the seller may incur significant costs to defend the security and, if applicable, compensate the buyer for financial losses.

For the Buyer:

  • Legal security: The General Warranty Deed offers robust legal protection to the buyer, protecting them against future title problems or claims.
  • Protected Investment: Since the deed offers guarantees against encumbrances and future claims, the buyer's investment in the property is largely protected.

It is essential that both parties, the buyer and the seller, fully understand the rights, guarantees and obligations established by the General Warranty Deed to ensure a smooth and transparent real estate transaction, mitigating the risk of misunderstandings and future disputes.

Comparison with Other Scriptures:

  • General Warranty Deed vs Quitclaim Deed:
    • Quitclaim Deed does not offer guarantees to the buyer about the validity of the title and the absence of encumbrances. It is often used in property transfers between family members or in situations where the parties have a close relationship.
    • General Warranty DeedOn the other hand, it is often used when the parties do not have a close relationship and are looking for more security and guarantees in the transaction.
  • General Warranty Deed vs Special Warranty Deed:
    • Special Warranty Deed offers guarantees limited to the title, generally only against claims or encumbrances that may have arisen during the period of ownership by the seller.
    • General Warranty Deed offers a more comprehensive guarantee, protecting the buyer against any claims or encumbrances that may arise, regardless of when they may have been created.
  • General Warranty Deed vs Bargain and Sale Deed:
    • Bargain and Sale Deed does not provide guarantees against encumbrances and is often used in forced sales or sales of foreclosed properties, where the seller does not want to assume responsibility for guaranteeing against encumbrances or other claims.
    • General Warranty Deed offers a much higher level of protection and security for the buyer, and is therefore more suitable for transactions where the buyer wishes to ensure a clear and indisputable transfer of title.

Special Warranty Deed:

Description and Advantages:

The Special Warranty Deed is a type of deed that offers a medium level of protection to the buyer. Unlike the General Warranty Deed, which provides comprehensive warranties on the title to the property, the Special Warranty Deed limits the warranties only to the period in which the current seller owned the property. In other words, the seller guarantees that the title was free and clear of encumbrances and claims during their period of ownership, but offers no guarantees as to the history of the title before that.

Main advantages:

  • Protection against Recent Claims: It offers protection to the buyer against claims and encumbrances that may have arisen during the period of ownership by the seller.
  • Simpler Transactions: Ideal for situations in which the parties wish to conclude a sale with limited guarantees, simplifying the due diligence process.
  • Adaptability: Often used in commercial property sales or in transactions involving entities such as trusts or companies.

Practical Applications and Precautions:

The Special Warranty Deed is often applied in specific contexts where the full guarantees of a General Warranty Deed are not necessary or feasible.

  • Commercial Sales: Many sales of commercial property or transactions between business entities employ the Special Warranty Deed.
  • Property Transfers in Divorces: It is also common in situations such as divorce settlements, where one spouse transfers the property to the other.
  • Auction sales: Used at foreclosure sales or auctions, where the full title history may not be available.


  • Title verification: The buyer should carry out thorough research into the title to ensure that there are no problems that may arise from periods prior to the seller's ownership.
  • Title insurance: It is advisable to consider purchasing title insurance to provide an additional layer of protection against future claims to the title.

Relevant Financial and Legal Aspects:

Those involved in a transaction using the Special Warranty Deed must be aware of the financial and legal implications in order to navigate the process efficiently and safeguard their interests.

For the Seller:

  • Less Responsibility: Sellers have relatively limited liability in relation to the security, as the guarantees offered do not cover periods prior to their ownership.
  • Flexibility: It can be a viable option when the complete and comprehensive transfer of title is restricted or impractical.

For the Buyer:

  • Potential risk: There is a higher level of risk compared to the General Warranty Deed, given the limited guarantees.
  • Duty of care: Buyers need to carry out a thorough title check to mitigate possible risks and ensure that the property is free of encumbrances or previous claims.

By understanding the applicability and nuances of the Special Warranty Deed, buyers and sellers can navigate real estate transactions in a more informed and secure manner, ensuring that the rights and interests of both parties are preserved throughout the process. This understanding will be deepened in the following topics, ensuring a holistic and detailed view of each type of deed and its respective applications and implications.

Quitclaim Deed:

Detailed exploration of the concept and applications:

A Quitclaim DeedThe Deed of Renunciation, or Escritura de Renúncia, has a specific application and is often used in situations where the quick transfer of a property is desired, but with one important caveat: it offers no guarantees as to the title of the property.

In this type of deed, the seller, called the "assignor", waives all his rights to the property in favor of the buyer, the "assignee", without ensuring that the title is free and clear of encumbrances.

Common applications:

  • Transfers between family members: Due to the absence of guarantees, the Quitclaim Deed is often used in property transfers between family members.
  • Title corrections: It can also be used to correct errors in property titles or registers, adjusting ownership without needing the guarantees of a traditional deed.
  • Divorce Transactions: In divorce cases, where one spouse transfers the property to the other, Quitclaim Deed is often the tool of choice due to its simplicity and speed.
  • Transfer to a legal entity: It is very common among foreign real estate investors in Florida to have their property in a company, either to seek more protection or to avoid FIRPTA being applied at the time of sale. To transfer ownership from an individual to a legal entity, a Quit Claim is usually used.

Risk Analysis and Legal Considerations:

The absence of guarantees in the Quitclaim Deed can represent significant risks and requires a proper analysis and understanding of the legal aspects.

Potential risks:

  • Lack of guarantees: The buyer receives no guarantees as to the validity of the security and the absence of encumbrances or claims.
  • Fraud and Disputes: There are increased risks of fraud or future disputes, since the deed does not confirm that the seller has a valid and indisputable property.

Legal considerations:

  • Title verification: Although Quitclaim Deed does not offer guarantees, the buyer should carry out extensive research into the security to avoid future complications.
  • Legality of the transfer: The parties must ensure that the transfer of ownership is legal and complies with local regulations to avoid disputes and future legal problems.

Associated costs:

The Quitclaim Deed can be seen as an attractive option due to the relatively low costs and simplicity of the process. However, it is crucial that the parties are aware of the potential direct and indirect costs associated.

  • Recording rates: Although it is generally more affordable, there may still be fees associated with recording the deed and processing documents.
  • Property Transfer Taxes: Depending on the jurisdiction, taxes or fees related to the transfer of ownership may apply.
  • Litigation costs: Due to the high risks associated with the absence of collateral, the parties may incur significant legal costs in the event of disputes or complications related to the security in the future.

Quitclaim Deed is a property transfer tool that offers speed and efficiency, but comes with its own complexities and risks. Fully understanding these aspects, and weighing up the advantages and disadvantages of using it, is vital to navigating safely through the often tricky waters of real estate transactions.

Bargain and Sale Deed:

Definition and Usage Scenarios:

A Bargain and Sale Deed may be less well known in some jurisdictions, but it is still a relevant instrument in certain real estate situations. This type of deed transfers ownership from a seller to a buyer, but unlike some other forms of deeds, it does not offer guarantees against encumbrances or other claims on the property.

Common Use Scenarios:

  • Auction sales: Often used in auction sales, where the seller (which may be a municipality, for example) does not want to be responsible for title or encumbrance problems.
  • Transactions between companies: In corporate or business transactions, where properties are sold "as is".
  • Bankruptcy cases: When properties are sold by a trustee in a bankruptcy case.

Advantages and disadvantages:


  • Simplicity and speed: It can be a quick and uncomplicated way to carry out a real estate transaction.
  • Flexibility: It provides a certain flexibility, allowing the sale to proceed even without robust guarantees on the security.


  • Risk for the Buyer: It can represent significant risks for the buyer due to the absence of guarantees on the security and unknown potential encumbrances.
  • Limitations: It does not protect the buyer against third-party title claims.

Financial and legal details:

Understanding the financial and legal aspects associated with Bargain and Sale Deed is crucial for efficiently navigating transactions that employ this type of deed.

Financial aspects:

  • Cost-effective: While it may seem financially advantageous due to the straightforward nature of the transaction, buyers should weigh up the potential for significant costs in the future if problems arise with the title.
  • Title insurance: The buyer may want to consider obtaining title insurance to protect against possible future claims, representing an additional cost.

Legal considerations:

  • Due diligence: It is imperative that the buyer carries out a detailed due diligence search of the title, even if the deed offers no guarantees.
  • Drawing up contracts: Both parties must work diligently when drawing up contracts to ensure that all obligations, rights and responsibilities are clearly defined and agreed.
  • Legal advice: Both buyers and sellers should seek sound legal advice to ensure that they are fully aware of the potential risks and that they are taking all possible precautions.

Although Bargain and Sale Deed Although it offers an additional option for the transfer of ownership, its use requires careful analysis and a clear assessment of the potential pros and cons. A clear awareness and understanding of the financial and legal aspects surrounding it is indispensable to ensure that both parties are fully informed and protected as they move forward with the transaction.

Comparison between types of deed:

The choice of deed type during a real estate transaction in Florida is influenced by several factors, including the level of guarantee desired, the relationship between the parties and the nature of the transaction. Let's take a look at the four types of deeds discussed: General Warranty Deed, Special Warranty Deed, Quitclaim Deed and Bargain and Sale Deed.

Comparison table:

Criteria General Warranty Deed Special Warranty Deed Quitclaim Deed Bargain and Sale Deed
Guarantees Wide Limited None None
Risks for the Buyer Bass Moderate High High
Initial Cost High (due to guarantees) Moderate Bass Variable
Common use Traditional sales Corporate transactions, some residential sales Family transfers, removal of a name from the title Auction sales, bankruptcy cases
Title Insurance Recommended, but often considered optional due to guarantees Strongly recommended Highly recommended Highly recommended

Critical Analysis:

  • General Warranty Deed:
    • When to use: Ideal for buyers seeking maximum protection and sellers willing to provide extensive guarantees. Useful in transactions where the parties have no prior relationship.
    • Analysis: It provides the greatest security for the buyer, but also requires the seller to have substantial confidence in the integrity of the security.
  • Special Warranty Deed:
    • When to use: Suitable for situations where the seller is willing to offer some guarantees, but wants to limit their liability to their period of ownership.
    • Analysis: A useful middle ground, which offers some protection to the buyer while limiting the seller's exposure to future claims.
  • Quitclaim Deed:
    • When to use: More suitable for transactions between parties who know and trust each other, such as family members or in situations where the title has already been examined.
    • Analysis: It presents the greatest risk for the buyer due to the absence of guarantees, but it can also be the simplest and most straightforward in family or domestic situations.
  • Bargain and Sale Deed:
    • When to use: Applicable mainly to forced sales, such as those resulting from tax foreclosures or bankruptcies.
    • Analysis: It represents significant risks for the buyer due to the lack of guarantees and the possible presence of encumbrances on the property.

When choosing the most suitable deed for a transaction, sellers and buyers should carefully consider the pros and cons of each type, always keeping the peculiarities and requirements of the specific transaction in mind. A clear understanding of the characteristics, benefits, and risks associated with each type of deed allows the parties to make informed choices that align their interests and needs during the real estate transaction. The assistance of qualified professionals, such as real estate lawyers, is often invaluable in this process.

Life Estate Deed:

Definition and benefits:

A Life Estate Deed (Deed of Life Estate) is a form of property transfer that gives the grantor the right to use and benefit from a property during his lifetime, automatically transferring ownership to the grantee upon his death. This approach allows the transferor to maintain occupancy or generate income from the property during their lifetime, ensuring that the property is efficiently transferred to the transferee without the need for an inventory or probate process.

Primary benefits:

  • Continuous Use Guarantee: The grantor can use, rent or earn income from the property throughout its life.
  • Avoiding the Inventory Process: Facilitates the direct transfer of ownership to heirs or assignees.
  • Flexibility: It gives the assignor the right to change the assignee if he so wishes during his lifetime.

Typical Contexts of Use:

A Life Estate Deed is used in various situations, such as

  • Succession planning: For people who want to ensure that their property passes to their heirs without legal complexities.
  • Income generation: When the assignor wants to retain the right to generate income by renting out the property during his lifetime.
  • Control maintenance: The grantor wants to maintain control over the property while he is alive, with a smooth transition after his passing.

Financial and legal implications:

It is crucial to consider several facets when opting for Life Estate Deed:

  • For the Merchant: There are potential tax implications in addition to the impossibility of selling the property without the assignee's consent.
  • For the Assignee: Despite obtaining ownership automatically upon the transferor's death, the transferee may have little or no authority over the property while the transferor is alive.

Lady Bird Deed:

Definition and benefits:

A Lady Bird Deedor Enhanced Lifetime Property Deed, gives the grantor more control over the property during his lifetime, when compared to an Life Estate Deed traditional. This instrument allows the property to be transferred to the transferee after the transferor's death without the need to go through probate, while at the same time allowing the transferor to change the beneficiaries or sell the property without the need for the beneficiaries' consent.

Primary benefits:

  • Extended Control: The grantor retains full control of the property during his lifetime.
  • Flexibility: You can change the beneficiaries or sell the property at any time.
  • Simple transfer: It ensures that ownership is transferred without the need for an inventory process.

Typical Contexts of Use:

  • Avoid Inventory: When the transferor wants the property to be transferred transparently and efficiently.
  • Maintain Total Control: When the transferor wants to guarantee total control over the property until the end of his life.
  • Providing security: Offering the transferee a smooth transition of ownership after the transferor's death.

Financial and legal implications:

By using the Lady Bird Deed:

  • For the Merchant: He retains complete authority over the property and is able to handle or deflect possible legal issues or disputes during his lifetime.
  • For the Assignee: Receives the property directly after the transferor's passing, but has limited or no control or rights over the property while the transferor is alive.

The selection between these two deeds must consider the desires and needs of both the transferor and the transferee, balancing the benefits of control, flexibility, and simplicity in the transfer of ownership, along with the potential financial and legal implications inherent in each choice.

Financial aspects of the deeds:

Engaging in a real estate transaction, especially in Florida, requires a keen understanding of the financial aspects involved, and each type of deed brings with it specific considerations about costs, taxes and fees. It is crucial for buyers and sellers to thoroughly explore each type of deed to ensure a transparent transaction without unexpected financial surprises.

Associated costs:

Costs can vary widely based on the type of deed chosen:

  • General Warranty Deed:
    • Title search: It is usually more costly, as it involves a thorough search for any defects or encumbrances on the title.
    • Title Insurance: It can be recommended to offer an additional layer of protection to the buyer.
  • Special Warranty Deed:
    • Title search: Less comprehensive (and therefore generally less costly) than the research required by the General Warranty Deed.
    • Title Insurance: It is often considered vital to mitigate risks related to claims outside the period in which the seller held the security.
  • Quitclaim Deed:
    • Title search: It is generally not carried out, reducing initial costs but increasing the risks for the buyer.
    • Title Insurance: It can be difficult to acquire, given the lack of guarantees on the security.
  • Bargain and Sale Deed:
    • Title search: It is possible that a moderate survey will be conducted, but this may depend on the agreement between the parties.
    • Title Insurance: Often considered essential due to the lack of guarantees against previous encumbrances.


  • Real Estate Transfer Tax (Stamp Tax): This is often a cost to be considered and can be substantial, depending on the value of the sale of the property. It does not apply for example in the Quit Claim Deed
  • Recording rates: There are fees associated with registering the deed at the county or city public records office.
  • Other Fees: Depending on the nature of the transaction and the location of the property, there may be other municipal and state taxes to be paid.

Transparency and a clear understanding of all the costs, taxes and fees associated with the transfer of ownership of a property are vital to prevent disputes and ensure that both parties are satisfied with the final agreement.

The expertise of professionals such as lawyers and realtors is often invaluable in guiding the parties through the financial and legal intricacies of this process, ensuring that the transaction is conducted in a fair and equitable manner for all involved.

Guide for Brazilian Buyers:

The purchase of a property in Florida by Brazilian citizens is a task that, although exciting, is full of specificities that need to be meticulously observed to ensure a smooth transaction and compliance with all applicable laws.

Fiscal and Legislative Aspects:

  • Taxes on purchases:
    • Brazilians need to be aware of ITBI (Real Estate Transfer Tax) in Florida and how it is calculated on the value of the property. Stamps.
    • In addition, it is important to understand the incidence of local taxes, such as those for the maintenance of common areas, which can be frequent in condominiums, known as CDD (Community Development District).
  • Annual Taxes:
    • Properties in Florida are subject to property tax, which is calculated on the basis of the property's assessed value. Property Tax which can vary from city to city.
    • It is crucial to be aware of the "Florida Homestead Exemption", a tax exemption that can benefit homeowners who declare their property in Florida as main residence.
  • Property legislation:
    • It is essential to understand the local laws regarding property ownership, including condominium rules, land use and short-term rentals (if applicable).
    • Understanding zoning regulations and what is allowed in terms of renovations or alterations to the property is also key.
    • During the purchase process, the buyer has the right to receive all documents relating to the limitations of the property, whether by local rules or condominium rules.

International Financial Transactions:

  • Remittance of Values:
    • Brazilian law allows the remittance of money for the purchase of real estate abroad, but it is imperative that these transactions are duly declared to the Central Bank of Brazil and the Internal Revenue Service.
    • Using a recognized bank or financial institution to guarantee a secure and documented transaction is vital to avoid future problems.
  • Financing in the USA:
    • Some Brazilians choose to explore financing options available in Florida. To do so, it is essential to understand the requirements, such as credit history and proof of income.
    • It is also important to understand the interest rates, terms and other conditions associated with real estate financing in the USA.


Legal Buyer Protection and Due Diligence:

A real estate purchase is often one of the largest financial transactions a person will make in their lifetime, and as such it must be conducted with the utmost prudence and diligence, ensuring that the buyer's interests are protected at every stage.

The Importance of Due Diligence:

  • Review of documents (the notary's office has this obligation in the process):
    • Thoroughly analyze all documents related to the property, such as titles, ownership history, and possible financial or legal issues associated with it.
    • Check the authenticity of the documents presented and verify the suitability of the sellers.
  • Physical inspection of the property:
    • Carry out a comprehensive inspection of the property, examining structural aspects and maintenance conditions, and employing professionals to assess specific elements such as electrical installations and plumbing systems.
  • Market Analysis:
    • Investigating market trends in the area, comparing prices of similar properties and ensuring that the agreed value is in line with the current market.

Protecting Your Interests:

  • Negotiating Prices and Terms: Use data collected during due diligence to negotiate favorable prices and terms, ensuring a fair and equitable purchase.
  • Insurance: Explore insurance options that can offer additional protection to the buyer and the investment made.
  • Tax planning: Discuss and plan in advance the tax implications of the property purchase, ensuring that all tax payments are up to date and in compliance with local laws.

Now let's explore some types of deeds that are less common in our day-to-day lives, but which are extremely useful and their understanding can help in choosing the right deed for each situation.

Fiduciary Deed

Definition: A Trust Deed (Fiduciary Deed) is a legal document used in Florida and other states that allows a fiduciary to

- a person or legal entity entrusted with the management of another person's property -

transfer real estate ownership to a third party.

This type of deed is commonly used in situations where the estate is being managed by an executor, administrator, guardian, or other fiduciary who has been appointed to manage or liquidate assets on behalf of another person or entity, such as an estate, trust or bankruptcy.

Main features:

  • Role of the Fiduciary: The fiduciary has a legal responsibility to act in the best interests of the person or entity for which they are managing the assets, adhering to strict ethical and legal standards.
  • Transfer of ownership: The Deed of Trust is used to transfer ownership of the property from the estate, trust, or other entity that the trustee is representing, to the new owner.
  • Limited Guarantees: Normally, a Fiduciary Deed does not provide the buyer with the same broad guarantees and protections as a warranty deed. In many cases, the guarantees are limited or non-existent.

Common Contexts of Use:

  • Succession cases: An executor or administrator of an estate can use a Deed of Trust to transfer real property according to the terms of a will or as directed by a court.
  • Trust management: A trustee may use a Trust Deed to sell or transfer real estate held within a trust, either to benefit the trust beneficiaries or to fulfill the purposes for which the trust was established.
  • Bankruptcy proceedings: In bankruptcy situations, a trustee can use a Deed of Trust to sell real estate as part of the process of liquidating the bankrupt's assets.

Legal and ethical considerations:

  • Fiduciary Duty: The fiduciary has an ethical and legal obligation to act in the best interests of the entity or person they are representing, ensuring that the sale or transfer of ownership is conducted in a fair and transparent manner.
  • Accuracy and legality: All details and statements made within the Deed of Trust must be accurate and truthful, and the document must comply with relevant state and local laws and regulations.
  • Transparency: Fiduciaries must be ready to account for and provide detailed information about the transaction to interested parties or legal authorities, if necessary.

The correct and ethical use of a Deed of Trust in Florida is crucial to ensure that the interests of the parties involved are safeguarded and that the transfer of ownership takes place in a legal and transparent manner. Navigating the complexities of these transactions often benefits from the advice or assistance of an experienced real estate and/or trust law attorney.

  1. Executor's Deed:
  • Use: Used by an executor of a will to sell real estate owned by a deceased person.
  • Background: The deceased person has a will specifying an executor and details regarding the distribution of assets.
  1. Administrator's Deed:
  • Use: Used by an administrator of an estate to sell property when the deceased person has not left a will (intestate).
  • Background: The court appoints an administrator to manage the distribution of the deceased's assets.
  1. Trustee's Deed:
  • Use: Used by a trustee to sell property that is part of a trust.
  • Background: Generally, trusts are established by living individuals (grantor) and are managed by one or more trustees for the benefit of third parties (beneficiaries).
  1. Guardian's Deed:
  • Use: Used by a legal guardian to sell property belonging to an incapacitated person (for example, a minor or an incapacitated person).
  • Background: The court appoints a guardian to manage the incapacitated person's assets.
  1. Receiver's Deed:
  • Use: Used by a receiver (a court-appointed trustee) to sell property of an entity in bankruptcy or liquidation.
  • Background: Often used in bankruptcy situations or other legal circumstances where the property of an entity needs to be sold to pay debts.
  1. Sheriff's Deed:
  • Use: Used by the sheriff or other bailiff to sell property, often as a result of a foreclosure or tax sale.
  • Background: This deed is commonly used when a property is sold at public auction due to foreclosure or to pay overdue taxes.
  1. Conservator's Deed:
  • Use: Used by a conservator to sell the property of someone who cannot manage their own financial affairs.
  • Background: The court appoints a conservator when a person is unable to manage their own financial affairs due to mental or physical incapacity.
  1. Power of Attorney Deed:
  • Use: Although not technically a trust deed, a power of attorney deed allows an agent to act on behalf of another person to transfer property.
  • Background: A power of attorney document allows the agent (sometimes called an "attorney-in-fact") to act in the best interests of the principal.

Executor's Deed

Definition and Context: The Executor's Deed is a legal instrument used to transfer property from the estate of a deceased person as directed by their will. The executor, named in the will, is the person responsible for managing and distributing the deceased's assets.

Main benefits:

  • Limited Warranty: The executor offers guarantees relating only to the period during which he administered the estate.
  • Legal protection: By adhering to the terms of the will and the relevant laws, the executor is protected from certain legal liabilities.

Context of Use:

  • Testamentary distribution: It is used to distribute the estate's assets as stipulated in the deceased's will.

Legal and financial implications: For the Executioner:

  • Legal responsibility: Can be held responsible for mismanagement of the estate's assets.
  • Legal complications: Possible will disputes may arise between the heirs.

For the Beneficiary:

  • Clarity of Rights: The title of ownership is passed on clearly and in line with the will.
  • Possible costs: Possibility of additional costs in the event of legal disputes over the distribution of assets.

Administrator's Deed

Definition and benefits:
The Administrator's Deed is used when property is transferred by an administrator, who is the person appointed by the court to manage an estate when the deceased did not leave a will (intestacy). This deed is essential to ensure the proper distribution of the deceased's assets as dictated by the state's succession laws.

Pri benefitsmain:

  • Legal distribution: It assists in the legal distribution of the assets of an intestate estate.
  • Administrator protection: Provided it complies with the laws of succession, it offers some legal protection to the administrator against future claims to the title of the estate.

Typical Contexts of Use:
This deed is commonly used in the following circumstances:

  • Intested spoils: When the deceased person did not leave a will, and the state determines the division of assets.
  • Distribution of Goods: Where the trustee sells the deceased's property and distributes the proceeds among the heirs as dictated by law.

Financial and legal implications:
For the Administrator:

  • Legal responsibility: You can be held liable for mismanagement of assets if you do not act in accordance with the laws of succession.
  • Legal requirements: It must ensure that all creditors are paid before the assets are distributed to the heirs.

For the Heirs:

  • Sales revenue: The heirs receive the proceeds from the sale of the estate, minus any debts or obligations that the estate owes.
  • Limitations: The distribution of assets is determined by the law and not by personal desires or relationships.

Trustee's Deed

Definition and benefits:
The Trustee Deed is employed when property is transferred by a trustee - an individual or entity that manages the property on behalf of a third party, usually as described in a trust.

Benefits Prmain:

  • Administration of the Trust: Facilitates the correct administration of a trust.
  • Transparent Transfer: It usually follows predetermined instructions, creating a transparent transfer.

Typical Contexts of Use:

  • Trust management: The property is administered or distributed according to the terms established in the trust.

Financial and legal implications:
They depend extensively on the terms of the trust and can involve fiduciary duties, tax obligations and responsibilities regarding the fair distribution of assets.

Guardian's Deed

Definition and benefits:
This deed refers to a transfer made by a guardian or curator on behalf of a minor or a person incapable of managing their own affairs.

Benefits Prmain:

  • Protection of Interests: Safeguards the interests of the incapacitated person.

Typical Contexts of Use:

  • Protecting the Interests of Minors/Incapacitated Persons: Used when goods are transferred from someone else's estate into their custody.

Financial and legal implications:
They vary, but the guardian/custodian is generally under a legal obligation to act in the best interests of the person in their care.

Receiver's Deed

Definition and benefits:
Transfer made by a receiver, a party appointed by the court to preserve property during a legal dispute or bankruptcy.

Benefits Prmain:

  • Neutrality: The receiver is a neutral party, which can add a layer of impartiality to the transaction.

Typical Contexts of Use:

  • Bankruptcy and Litigation: Usually in situations where the assets are part of litigation or bankruptcy.

Financial and legal implications:
They include the need for the receiver to act in accordance with court directives and often under the supervision of the court.

Sheriff's Deed

Definition and benefits:
Transfer made by a sheriff, usually as a result of a foreclosure or a sale to satisfy debt judgments.

Benefits Prmain:

  • Debt enforcement: It allows creditors to recover amounts owed through the sale of property.

Typical Contexts of Use:

  • Execution Sales: When a property is sold to comply with a court order.

Financial and legal implications:
Mainly concerning the validity of the debt and the legal conduct of the sale.

Conservator's Deed

Definition and benefits:
Relating to the transfer made by a conservator, who manages the estate of an adult incapacitated person.

Benefits Prmain:

  • Interest management: Protects the financial interests of the incapacitated person.

Typical Contexts of Use:

  • Management of Disabled People's Assets: When assets need to be transferred or sold to benefit the incapacitated person.

Financial and legal implications:
Decision-making must be in the best interests of the person in custody and can be supervised by the court.

Power of Attorney Deed

Definition and benefits:
It is a deed executed by an agent (attorney-in-fact), acting on behalf of the principal (the donor of the power of attorney) through a power of attorney.

Benefits Prmain:

  • Acting on behalf of others: It allows transactions to be made when the principal cannot act personally.

Typical Contexts of Use:

  • Absence or Incapacity: Used when the principal is unable to act, whether due to absence, illness or other reasons.

Financial and legal implications:
They vary and depend on the authorizations granted in the power of attorney.

Comparative Table of Deed Types

Type of Deed Guarantees offered Who transfers Context of Use Common Beneficiaries Buyer guarantee
Executor's Deed Limited Executor of a will Tested spoils Named heirs Limited to the period of administration of the estate
Administrator's Deed Limited Court-appointed administrator Gutted spoils Legal heirs Restricted guarantees or none at all, depending on local laws
Trustee Deed It can vary Trustee of the trust Usually, transactions related to trusts Beneficiaries of the trust Depends on the terms of the trust
Deed of Guardian or Curator None Tutor or Curator Protecting the interests of minors/disabled people Minor/incapable None
Receiver's deed None Receiver, usually in bankruptcy Legal proceedings, often bankruptcies Creditors None
Sheriff's Deed None Sheriff Foreclosure sales Buyers at auction None
Deed from the Registrar Limited Court-appointed conservator Protecting the interests of incapable adults Protected/incapable Usually limited
Deed of Power of Attorney Varies Agent (by proxy) When the principal can't act Represented (principal) As granted by the principal

Questions and Answers about Deeds

Conclusion and Next Steps:

When navigating the exciting yet complex world of buying real estate in Florida, equipping yourself with adequate knowledge and understanding of the different types of deeds and associated processes is imperative.

We have seen throughout this article the remarkable importance of knowing the characteristics, advantages, and potential challenges of different forms of deeds, such as "General Warranty Deed", "Special Warranty Deed", "Quitclaim Deed", "Bargain and Sale Deed" and "Warranty Deed".


  • Understanding the ScripturesEach type of deed offers different levels of protection and guarantees for the buyer and adapts to different contexts and needs.
  • Financial aspectsAttention to financial details, including taxes, fees and possible charges associated with each type of deed, is vital to ensure a financially sound transaction and avoid unpleasant surprises in the future.
  • Legal protection and due diligenceThe importance of exercising rigorous due diligence and ensuring that all legal checks and consultations are carried out to protect your investment and your rights as an owner is irreplaceable.
  • Guide for Brazilian BuyersUnderstanding and navigating the specific peculiarities and requirements for international buyers, especially Brazilians, will ensure a smoother buying experience and compliance with all tax and legal obligations in both countries.

Next Steps for Buyers:

  • Legal and Real Estate AdviceConsider getting legal advice and support from an experienced real estate agent who can help you navigate the buying process efficiently and safely.
  • Financial PlanningMake sure you carry out solid financial planning, considering all the associated fees, taxes and costs, and be aware of tax obligations in both Florida and Brazil.
  • Property verificationNever underestimate the importance of a thorough property inspection and title search to avoid future complications.
  • Preparing for ChangeOnce the transaction is complete, the process of relocating and/or managing the property begins. It may be beneficial to explore local services that help with relocation or property management for absentee owners.
  • Property Management: Explore property management options, especially if you are an international buyer and will not be living in the property all year round.
  • Continuous reviewKeep up to date with any changes in real estate or tax laws in both the US and Brazil that may affect your property or tax status.


It is clear that there are many types of deeds and that professional assistance is necessary to ensure that the buyer's rights are preserved.

Any doubts?

Now that you've understood the importance of professional support in the process of registering a property in Florida, you can get in touch with us and start your journey to investing in a property in Florida. To take advantage of all the tips we've brought you and to go even deeper, you can talk directly to our relationship agents. They are always happy to talk to you to answer any questions you may have about investing in Florida.
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