Orlando's history goes back many years before Walt Disney arrived in the city.

For years I've been saddened by the fact that most of the millions of tourists who visit central Florida's theme parks each year have never seen the real Orlando.

Walt Disney World, for example, is almost 20 miles west of downtown Orlando, Florida.

International Drive, Lake Buena Vista, Osceola County and the area around the theme parks have expanded to cater for tourists. But it's not the real Orlando, Florida.

They emerged very recently in Orlando's history.

Orlando's modern history dates back to 1838 and the Second Seminole War. The U.S. Army built Fort Gatlin southeast of present-day downtown Orlando to protect settlers from Indians.

In 1840, a small village known as Jernigan grew up around the fort. The name came from the Jernigan family, the first settlers in the area.

In 1850, Jernigan had a post office and in 1856 the community expanded to the north and changed its name to Orlando. In 1857, the US Post Office adopted the name change.

The city of Orlando was incorporated in 1875 with 85 residents, 22 of whom were qualified voters.

HISTORY OF ORLANDO'S NAME

As for the part of Orlando's history that is still nebulous: where did the name come from?

I know of at least five versions of how the city came to be known as Orlando.

  1. One of the first politicians Judge SpeerHe named the town after a man called Orlando, who worked for him.
  2. Judge Speer himself was a Shakespeare fan and named the town after Orlando, a character in the play "As You Like It".
  3. A man called Orlando was passing through on his way to Tampa with a herd of oxen. He fell ill and died. The locals buried him, and people referred to the place as "there's Orlando".
  4. Orlando Reeves was an American soldier on sentry duty one night during the Seminole Wars. He spotted a disguised Indian sneaking up on the troops and fired his gun to warn his fellow soldiers. He was killed by arrows from the Indian, but his warning saved the troops. They buried him on the south side of Lake Eola, where downtown Orlando is today.
  5. A man called Orlando Reeves owned a sugar mill and plantation north of Orlando, in what is now Volusia County. He carved his name into a tree near what is now Lake Eola. Later settlers assumed that the tree was a tomb. Their speculation as to the origin of the carving led to various accounts of battles in the Seminole War, and the area around the tree became known as the "Orlando's Tomb" or simply "Orlando".

The citizens of Orlando have their own favorite version. Recently, I heard from Carolyn Pangborna descendant of Judge Speer. She provided historical references that lead me to believe that it was the judge who came up with the name.

The name was appropriate because Orlando's history since the end of the Seminole Wars has been one of constant growth.

Just before the Civil War, Orlando became the seat of the newly created Orange County. It was a quiet country town during the war, but its population exploded between 1875 and 1895.

THE GLORY DAYS OF CITRUS 1875-1895

In that 20-year period, Orlando became the the center of Florida's citrus industry.

The "Big Freeze" of 1894-1895 forced many smallholders to give up their orchards. Owners of larger orchards increased their holdings and they became "citrus barons".

Many of them bought land and expanded their operations south of Orlando, in the area around Lake Wales.

The town of Frostproof south of Lake Wales didn't get its name by chance.

Orlando, as Florida's largest inland city, became a popular resort during the years between the Spanish-American War and the First World War.

THE LAND BOOM IN FLORIDA IN THE 1920S

The Florida Land Boom affected Orlando in the 1920s. Land prices have skyrocketed. Many magnificent tourist facilities, such as the elegant Hotel San Juanwere built during those heady years.

During this period, many neighborhoods close to downtown Orlando were developed. The many small bungalows that still exist in these areas are part of Orlando's history and a key component of the city's charm.

THE SECOND WORLD WAR CHANGES ORLANDO

There was a lot of military activity in Orlando before, during and after the World War IIl. The municipal airport north of Lake Underhill was converted into the Orlando Army Air Base.

A new airport was built 10 miles south of Orlando to replace the municipal airport. It was quickly converted into the Pine Castle Air Force Base and eventually became the McCoy Air Force Base. It is now the site of the vastly expanded Orlando International Airport.

After the war, many of the servicemen and women stayed to settle and start families in Orlando, "The City Beautiful.

MARTIN MARIETTA IS COMING TO TOWN WITH LOTS OF JOBS

In 1956, Martin Marietta (now Lockheed Martin)In 1949, he built a major aerospace defense plant south of Orlando on Kirkman Road. It became a major employer in the Orlando area.

In addition to jobs in Martin MariettaOrlando is close enough to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center that residents can commute to work from Orlando's eastern suburbs.

The Beachline Expressway provides easy access to Port Canaveral, a major cruise ship terminal.

Because of its proximity to the Space Coast near the Kennedy Space Center, many high-tech companies have moved to the Orlando area.

Here's a promotional video from the late 1950s and early 1960s. The Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce was promoting growth in Orlando. If you were here at that time, you'll remember the scenes with nostalgia.

The Chamber of Commerce was successful in helping Orlando grow, but little did they know what was waiting to happen in the late 1960s in the area 17 miles southwest of the city known as Lake Buena Vista.

THE WORLD OF WALT DISNEY COMES TO TOWN

The biggest thing that ever happened to Orlando, however, was when Walt Disney announced in 1965 that he was going to build Walt Disney World near Orlando.

Those who started working at Walt Disney World in 1968 saw first-hand the changes that took place in Orlando, Florida: some good, some bad.

Walt Disney World opened in October 1971.

O tourismInstead of the high-tech industry and agriculture, it has become a major part of Orlando's economy. Today we are starting to see technology companies coming to Orlando.

The population has exploded since then, and there are now probably as many service jobs in the tourism industry as there are high-tech jobs.

Orlando in Florida now has more theme parks and entertainment attractions than anywhere else in the world.

What was once a sleepy little town shared with McCoy Air Force Base is now the giant Orlando International Airport.

When the Walt Disney World was being built, the tallest building in Orlando, Florida, was the 10-story Angebilt Hotel, shown in the postcard above.

There are now buildings of up to 35 floors in the center.

It's simple to enjoy Orlando's history. Just drive away from Walt Disney World and the other theme parks and head towards the true Orlando.

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